選擇高登診斷系統 (Gordon Diagnostic System)的原因:
- 是Computerized Assessment Of Attention & Self Control標準
About The Gordon Diagnostic System: This device aids in the diagnosis of attention deficits, especially Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It provides reliable, objective information about an individual’s ability to sustain attention and exert self-control. This practical, reliable, and well-researched device enhances the accuracy and relevance of a comprehensive evaluation for attention deficits and impulsiveness.
The GDS is a microprocessor-based, portable unit which administers a series of game-like tasks. The Vigilance Task yields data regarding an individual's ability to focus and maintain attention over time and in the absence of feedback. A series of digits flash, one at a time, on a electronic display. The subject is told to press a button every time a "1" is followed by a "9". The GDS records the number of correct responses, incorrect responses, and failures to respond to the "1/9" combination. A more complicated version of this paradigm designed for older children and adults (the Distractibility Test) flashes irrelevant digits on either side of the column that displays the target stimuli. For the testing of younger children the GDS contains a "1" mode which requires the child to press the button only upon appearance of a "1".
The GDS also offers parallel forms of each task and a test of impulse control (the Delay Task) which requires a child to inhibit responding in order to earn points. Each task can be administered in less than 9 minutes. The internal microprocessor generates the tasks and records quantitative features of the child’s performance. These data can either be read off the GDS itself or transmitted to an external printer or computer. The GDS has been cleared as a medical device by the Food & Drug Administration, and boasts extensive standardization.
Your purchase includes Delay, Vigilance, Distracability Tasks, Instruction Manual Interpretive Guide, package of 50 Record Forms, and four issues of the ADHD/Hyperactivity Newsletter with a one year warranty.
The GDS Interpretive Guide comes with clearly-written documentation that fully addresses administration and interpretation of the test. The guide presents percentile and threshold tables, sample reports, and answers to common questions about interpretation. Norms for Auditory Module are available for ages 6-12 years (not for adults).
The Temporal Stability of GDS Norms
Below are preliminary means and standard deviations for GDS standard scores for children
tested between the years 2000 and 2006. They were collected as part of an NIH epidemiological
sleep study (Penn State Child Cohort, Bixler et al., 2009). Given that the means hover around
100, it is clear that the original norms collected in 1983 remain stable. These numbers are in line
with the means of control groups in several other studies.
184 Typical 6-12 years (excluding children with ADHD and LD)
|Vigilance Total Correct||102||11||59-117|
|Vigilance Total Errors||104||8||67-114|
|Distractibility Total Correct||106||16||45-126|
|Distractibility Total Errors||102||12||36-111|
570 General Population 6-13 years (including children with ADHD and LD)
|Vigilance Total Correct||96||19||0-120|
|Vigilance Total Errors||95||24||0-114|
|Distractibility Total Correct||98||19||38-126|
|Distractibility Total Errors||91||29||0-111|
Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2007). Learning, attention, writing, and processing speed in typical children and children with ADHD, autism, anxiety, depression, and oppositionaldefiant disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 13, 469-493.
1. How has the GDS been standardized?
Normative data for the GDS tasks are based upon protocols of over 1.300 nonhyperactive boys and girls aged 4-16 years. The norms are arranged in Threshold Tables which demarcate Normal, Borderline, and Abnormal ranges of performance. The data are broken down by age groups (4-5, 6-7, 8-11, 12-16 years), but not by sex or socioeconomic status because these factors are not correlated with GDS scores. Published norms are also available for adults, college students, geriatric populations, and Puerto Rican children. Over twenty years of research by Dr. Gordon and independent research sites have explored the validity and reliability of the GDS. A representative selection of articles are provided when you request information about the GDS.
2. Why should I use the GDS to evaluate children referred for symptoms of ADHD/Hyperactivity?
Surveys have shown that practitioners rely almost entirely upon subjective reports or their own clinical judgment when arriving at diagnostic decisions relating to this prevalent disorder. While information from parents and teachers should always be carefully considered, they are often influenced by a host of emotional and perceptual factors. The GDS provides the clinician with objective data based upon the child's actual behavior and allows for observation in a paradigm likely to elicit inattention and impulsiveness. With adults, GDS data allows for standardized assessment of a critical area of functioning which is often overlooked in formal evaluations.
3. Who can administer and interpret the GDS?
The GDS is extremely easy to use and can be administered by anyone. However, because observation of the child's performance provides critical information, it is usually advisable for the clinician to test the subject personally. As with any psychological test data, GDS protocols should be interpreted only by qualified professionals.
4. If I purchase a GDS, will I be kept informed of current research findings?
Absolutely. With the purchase of the GDS, users receive four issues the ADHD Report by Russell Barkley, Ph.D., which reviews research projects being conducted internationally. The Report also contains updates of standardization data and articles about developments in the field of ADHD/Hyperactivity.
5. Why shouldn't I use software versions of vigilance tasks?
Dr. Gordon's group tried this approach, but quickly confronted serious drawbacks. First, most professionals involved in the evaluation of these children tend to practice in several different schools, offices, and/or clinics. Practitioners were unwilling to carry a computer, monitor, and a disk drive from place to place. The portability issue was viewed as critical. Obtaining standard and reliable administration also became a major concern. There are a host of monitors in use that produce characters of various sizes, colors and intensities. Each computer also has its own keyboard which presents different stimuli to the child. Because these parameters of administration affected performance, Dr. Gordon was convinced that offering a GDS on different micros would require separate sets of norms for each kind of computer. He felt strongly that everybody should use equipment carefully calibrated to generate tasks reliably. Experience showed that ADHD/Hyperactive children, though academic underachievers as a group, were quite deft at disassembling devices placed before them. It was too easy for them to shut off the computer, stick fingers in delicate disk drives, turn brightness knobs, and remove covers.
6. Does the GDS have applications beyond ADHD?
While the GDS was developed for the evaluation of ADHD/Hyperactive children, it can be used in other areas for the assessment of vigilance and behavioral inhibition. For example, neurologists and neuropsychologists use the GDS in the evaluation of Tourette's Syndrome and to screen for inattention that may follow the administration of anticonvulsive medication. Others incorporate the GDS into their testing of adults with closed head injury, liver damage, or HIV infection.